The first modeling technique that the paper spoke about was a constraint system. VanLehn describes a constraint system as a system that predicts the possible states of the behavior of a system. It is known that mosquitoes infected with the virus are transmitting it to humans in South America. However, little is known about the how the transmission is affected based on different variables. The students can introduce different variables to influence the system, such as removal of ground water. Creating a system-dynamics model can show a historical aspect. The paper also speaks of an agent-based model, which shows the emergent behavior of a system. This model can be the most effective in understanding the transmission of the virus. All three models can help students understand the virus, offer an explanation of the transmission, and scaffold conversations about possible solutions to control the transmission. It is important to mention that students should explore the many different factors that can be accounted when modeling the virus.
In my opinion, VanLehn is a slight extension of the Schwarz paper, which showed how teaching students how to model scientific questions or phenomenon can be a progressive endeavor. It is important as science educators that we understand that ensuring that all students are grasping the overall concept of modeling and that we are expressing that there is no right or wrong way to create a model.